The Third Condition: the meaning of walls and gates in China

  • Маrkus Appenzeller


Walls in different cultural environments have different meaning. While this differs only gradually in western culture, in Chinese culture, they often have a very different meaning. Walls and the gates as the crossing points have a long tradition that dates back to the ancient empire. This cultural heritage has been used and adapted over the course of time, adding layer over layer and become integral part of both Chinese tradition and the contemporary Chinese city.

Author Biography

Маrkus Appenzeller

architect and urban planner, lecturer at the Berlage Institute, Rotterdam (now Technical University Delft), the Royal Academy of Arts, Copenhagen, the Technical University Gdansk and the State University St. Petersburg (Netherlands)

How to Cite
APPENZELLER, Маrkus. The Third Condition: the meaning of walls and gates in China. project baikal, Russian Federation, n. 36, p. 96-103, may 2013. ISSN 2309-3072. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 01 june 2020. doi:


Walls and gates in China; Chinese culture; Gated communitiy; Compound; Community living