City Сentres in the Paris Metropolitan Area

  • Christian Horn office Rethink


The concentration of the worldwide economic, financial and political activities in a few international metropolitan areas seems to continue. Cities that manage to be part of these networks experience generally an economic growth. But cities that fall out of these connections struggle to stay attractive for investments, jobs and people. This applies especially to medium and small size cities without a particular historic, economic or natural environment, that let them stand out. But also inside international metropolitan areas the
advantages of being part of the worldwide network are not distributed equally. The metropolitan centre becomes more attractive and at the same time financially inaccessible for the majority of the population. While the high-income population stays, the low-income
population is pushed out in the peripheral cities. These cities risk to concentrate an economic and social fragile population, without possessing the necessary financial means to support these households. A metropolitan and even national adjustment between the cities and territories becomes necessary. The following text describes the situation of three cities in the Paris metropolitan area.


Razemon, O. (2016). Comment la France a tué ses villes. Paris: Rue de l'échiquier, ISBN 9782374250380

Florida, R. (2016). New urban crisis. New York: Basic Books, ISBN 9780465079742

Horn, C. (2014). La Défense, a Unique Business District. project baikal, 11(39-40), 90-97. doi:
How to Cite
HORN, Christian. City Сentres in the Paris Metropolitan Area. project baikal, Russian Federation, n. 57, p. 132-144, sep. 2018. ISSN 2309-3072. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 30 may 2020.