“Needless People” of the 21st Century as a problem of urban studies and not only

  • Maxim Privalov


The article speaks about the necessity of comprehension of the socio-cultural consequences
of the fourth industrial revolution, the total robotization and the expansion of artificial intellectual systems and networks. It underlines the progressing displacement of humans from the economics, the consistent dehumanization of the society, mass technological unemployment and emergence of the numerous class of “needless people”. The author forecasts the impact of these processes on the transformation of the economic structure, the reformatting of the social problems, as well as the spatial environment and the functions of the cities. He comes to the conclusion that the “needless people” phenomenon will be of paramount importance for the societies of the 21st century.


Armellini, M., & Pike, T. (2017, March 1). Should economists be more concerned about Artificial Intelligence? Retrieved from http://bankunderground.co.uk

Farforovyi paradox. Bezhentsy i evropeitsy gruppy AES+F [The porceline paradox. The refugees and Europeans of AES+F Group]. (2018, July 27). Retrieved from https://www.svoboda.org/a/29376319.html

Florida, R. (2018). Novyi krizis gorodov [The New Urban Crisis]. Moscow: Tochka.

Ford, M. (2016). Rise of the robots: technology and the threat of a jobless future. Moscow: ANF.

Gen, Yu. (2017, February 28). V Rossii sprognozirovali sokrashchenie pyati millionov rabochikh mest [Five million jobs are forecasted to be reduced in Russia]. Rossiiskaya gazeta.

Harari, Yu. N. (2018). Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow. Moscow: Sindbad.

Interview of Rem Koolhaas to Vladimir Pozner [video file]. (2018, July 26). Retrieved from https://pozneronline.ru

Kaku, M. (2014, September 7). Ucheba uzhe ne budet bazirovatsya na zapominanii [Studying will no longer be based on memory]. Retrieved from https://22century.ru/popular-science-publications/michio-kaku

Kaku, M. (2016). The Future of the Mind. Moscow: Alpina Non Fiction.

Meison, P. (2016). PostCapotalism. A Guide to our Future. Moscow: Ad Marginem Press.

MUF 2018 “Megacity of the Future. New Space for Living”. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mosurbanforum.com/

Ratti, K. , & Claudel, M. (2017). The City of Tomorrow: Sensors, Networks, Hackers and the Future of Urban Life. Moscow: Gaidar Institute.

Rossiiskie eksperty prognoziruyut sokrashchenie 40% professii cherez 10 let [Russian experts forecast 40% reduction of professions in 10 years]. (2017, February 27). TASS. Retrieved from https://tass.ru/obschestvo/4053432

Sagitova, A. (2018, March 14). Sem’ pugayushchikh predskazanii Stivena Hokinga [Stephen Hawking’s seven terrifying predictions]. Retrieved from www.eg.ru>science / 484248 /

Standing, G. (2011). The Precariat. The New Dangerous Class. Moscow: Ad Marginem.

Tekhnicheskii director Google raspisal budushchee mira: prognoz do 2099 goda [The technical director at Google has predicted the future of the world until 2099]. (2017, June 14). Retrieved from https://inforesist.org

Uroven bezrabotitsy iz-za avtomatizatsii v megapolisakh dostignet 80% [Due to automatization, the level of unemployment in metropolises will reach 80%]. (2017, February 2). Retrieved from https://antony-w.livejournal.com/

Warwick, K. March of the Machines (2000). Nauka I zhizn’, 2.

Zotin, A. (2018, July 8). Ekonomika protesta: prekariat tsyfrovoi epokhi. Kak algoritmy podchinyayut lyudei [Protest economy: the precariat of the digital epoch. How algorithms conquer people]. Retrieved from https://www.kommersant.ru/
How to Cite
PRIVALOV, Maxim. “Needless People” of the 21st Century as a problem of urban studies and not only. project baikal, Russian Federation, n. 57, p. 87-93, sep. 2018. ISSN 2309-3072. Available at: <http://projectbaikal.com/index.php/pb/article/view/1361>. Date accessed: 01 june 2020.